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Results of anti-corruption monitoring

According to the results of 2017 and  data of the Committee on Legal Statistics and Special Records of the General Prosecutor's Office of the Republic of Kazakhstan, 2,452 corruption offenses were registered, which is 13% less than in 2016 (2,807 in 2016). At the same time, the identification of serious and especially serious corruption crimes has increased. Among the recorded corruption crimes, the bulk of cases are bribery - 51% (1245), embezzlement and fraud - 21% (808) and abuse - 16% (388). According to the Anti-Corruption Service, the number of criminal cases  have increased, which have been completed by the investigation. Thus, of the total number of criminal cases, 87% were completed by the investigation, whereas last year the figure was 79%. At the same time, the number of cases sent to court increased from 27% to 38%. Out of 1,146 persons involved in corruption, 828 were handed over to the court, which is 13% more than in 2016. In 2017, 19 managers of central state bodies and their subordinate organizations were uncovered, 98 - of  regional bodies, 152 -  of city and district authorities. The greatest number of corruption facts falls on of employees of akimats of all levels, employees of the internal affairs bodies and employees of the quasi-public sector. Among the areas with high risks of corruption continue to be education, agriculture, construction and health care. As a result of the implementation of deep operational developments in 2017, 108 systemic facts of corruption were suppressed (in 2016 - 92), with the identification of the entire chain from performers to organizers. In the regional aspect, the city of Almaty, the regions of Almaty, Kyzylorda, Atyrau and Zhambyl regions are subject to systemic manifestations of corruption. In 2017, the  targeted response work  was intensified in areas where the population most often faces manifestations of corruption. Thus, 201 facts of corruption were suppressed in the education system, 101 facts of corruption were prevented in the field of health, 183 -  in agriculture, 290 - in law enforcement and judicial bodies. Protecting business from unlawful interference by government agencies is a priority of anti-corruption policy. In this direction, 352 facts have been suppressed, which is a third more than in 2016 (262). The measures taken allowed to protect the rights of more than 270 entrepreneurs. In general, at the end of 2017, corruption acts were mainly manifested in the form of taking bribes for patronizing business entities, assisting in evading responsibility, issuing permits, as well as embezzlement and abuse of office in budget allocation in the framework of public procurement. Sociological surveys are a universal tool for obtaining objective information about the state and main trends in the corruption prevalence through the lens of public opinion. In 2017, PRECO Consulting conducted a sociological survey “Determining the level of perception of corruption”. The study was conducted to determine the level of perception of corruption in the Republic of Kazakhstan, to assess the sustainability of anti-corruption values ​​of the population and  satisfaction with the anti-corruption policy of the state, information openness of state bodies. The results of a sociological study compared with a similar study in 2016 showed a positive trend. For example, the number of people who have a negative attitude towards corruption increased by 20.7% (from 60.7% in 2016 to 81.4% in 2017), the number of people who estimate the level of corruption in a country on average and high level (from 72.7% in 2016 to 70.1% in 2017). It may also be seen  the increase in anti-corruption activity of civil society. For example, in 2017, 55.5% of the surveyed population stated that they were ready to personally provide support in reducing the level of corruption, while in 2016 this figure was 53.1%. These results were achieved largely due to the implementation of new approaches to involve society in the anti-corruption movement. Entrepreneurship participants who took part in this sociological study, placed corruption in government bodies as one of the barriers to business development in the fifth place (16.7% of respondents). In 2016, according to the results of a similar study, corruption was in 4th place in the ranking of key barriers to business development in the country. The share of citizens facing corruption in the state bodies of Kazakhstan makes 19.9%.  Individual entrepreneurs (29.9%) most often had to face corruption offenses in 2017. Comparing the results of similar studies over the past two years, there is a general decline in the share of citizens facing corruption in government bodies by 18.3%. In the regional context, respondents from Kyzylorda, South Kazakhstan, Kostanay and Atyrau regions most often faced with corruption offenses in 2017. At the same time, most often citizens have to deal with corruption offenses in government bodies which carry out their activities in the areas of tax services, health care, law enforcement, education, labor inspection and land relations. Along with PRECO Consulting, in 2017 sociological measurements of corruption were carried out by other research institutes: - Center for the Study of Interethnic and Interfaith Relations in the Central Asian Region; Eonomic Research Institute; Strategic center "Socium-zertteu". Positive trends in the field of countering corruption are demonstrated in the study of the Center for the Study of Interethnic and Interfaith Relations in the Central Asian Region "Sociological Dimension of Corruption: Causes, Forms, Level of prevalence” . Thus,  80% of  respondents said that they did not have to give money or gifts. At the same time, 83% of respondents attributed a decrease in corruption over the past 10 years to administrative reforms and an increase in anti-corruption culture. This indicates that citizens see the results of the work carried out by the state apparatus and support it. In 2017, the Economic Research Institute published the results of a sociological study “Business Climate 2016”, during which more than 4,000 entrepreneurs were surveyed throughout the country. A separate research unit was devoted to analyzing corruption in the following areas: determining the level of corruption in different regions, estimating the amount of bribes, and identifying the most corrupt industries. According to the survey, respondents rated the effectiveness of anti-corruption programs quite high - 71% of respondents think so. 28% of businessmen noted that they feel a decline in corruption in the country. This result indicates that the impetus of ongoing anti-corruption work received a response from the business community. As for the level of prevalence of corruption in the regions, over the past 5 years the corruption of Pavlodar, Akmola and North Kazakhstan regions has significantly decreased. There is also a large potential for reducing corruption in other regions. The Socium-Zertteu Strategic Center assessed the impact of information campaigns on the state of corruption in the republic. Thus, the study showed that social anti-corruption advertising as one of the channels of combating corruption received a positive assessment of 56.7% of respondents, especially among NGO representatives - 62.4% of respondents. According to the respondents, the most effective tools are awareness-raising activities in labor collectives and broadcasting of video clips on local TV channels and LED screens. The study also assessed the perception of the level of corruption by different groups of the population. In general, a large part of NGO representatives (78.8%), government employees (76.2%), individuals (63%), entrepreneurs (62.2%) did not have to fall into a corruption situation in the past year. Thus, the results of sociological research allow us to conclude that the society has formed a consciousness of intolerance to corruption, and the measures taken by the state to form an anti-corruption culture are effective. At the same time, in order to further increase the level of citizens' confidence in the activities of state bodies, first of all it is necessary to take the following measures: introduction of anti-corruption education and education of the younger generation, strengthening public control and increasing the level of legal literacy of the population.

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